Targeted corneal transplantation
Jhanji, Vishal; Mehta, Jod S.; Sharma, Namrata; Sharma, Bhavana; Vajpayee, Rasik B.
Purpose of review: Corneal transplantation surgery has moved from an era of conventional penetrating keratoplasty to selective replacement of the diseased corneal layer with complementary healthy donor corneal tissue. Anterior lamellar transplantation surgeries do not involve replacement of corneal endothelium, consequently eliminating the occurrence of endothelial rejection. Similarly, in diseases affecting the corneal endothelium, selective replacement with a lamellar lenticule bearing healthy endothelium provides better outcomes in terms of ocular surface, lesser astigmatism and quick visual recovery. In addition to the advantages of enhanced surgical outcomes, targeted corneal transplantation allows the use of one donor cornea for more than one recipient, thereby offering a viable solution to the problem of paucity of donor corneas.
Recent findings: Evolving techniques of corneal transplantation have enabled better utilization of donor corneal tissue. Anterior lamellar as well as endothelial keratoplasty surgeries have become first-choice surgeries in appropriately selected cases. This review briefly discusses some of these novel surgical techniques.
Summary: A better understanding of targeted corneal transplantation would lead to adaptation of the concept of component corneal surgery. This would further enable the corneal surgeons to circumvent the problem of donor corneal shortage especially in the developing world.