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Long-Term Preservation

Validated Aseptic Glycerol Preservation
CORNEA
//long-term preserved corneas for tectonic and glaucoma shunt coverage.
GlycerolPlus Corneas allow donated corneas not suitable for cornea transplant to provide coverage for glaucoma shunt. GPCs offer better cosmesis due to the clear tissue and results in less erosions. When rehydrated, the cornea swells allowing easy dissection of the stroma to obtain desired thickness.

Widely used in pharmaceutical formulations, glycerol (glycerin) is a colorless, odorless, and viscous liquid whose three hydrophilic hydroxyl groups impart both solubility in water and hygroscopicity (water-absorption). Glycerol has excellent anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral properties, well documented by literature on skin and bone banking [1-7] and scleral patches for ophthalmic surgery [8]. Glycerol acts as a cryo-protectant for frozen tissue storage, because it binds strongly to water and forestalls the formation of damaging ice crystals [9]. Due its dehydrating properties [10], glycerol is a de-cellularizing agent, allowing GPC to serve as scaffolding for procedures not requiring viable cells. Use of GPC for lamellar keratoplasty was established by pioneering experimental and clinical studies of J.H. King and associates [11-14], who preserved corneas in 95% commercial glycerol with molecular sieves (sodium and calcium alumino-silicates), physical adsorptive agents that removed water to an extremely low vapor pressure.

01. Basile AR. A comparative study of glycerinized and lyophilized porcine skin in dressings for third-degree burns. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1982 Jun;69(6):969-74. PMID 7079405
02. Kreis RW, Vloemans AF, Hoekstra MJ, et al. The use of non-viable glycerol-preserved cadaver skin combined with widely expanded autografts in the treatment of extensive third-degree burns. J Trauma. 1989 Jan;29(1):51-4. PMID 2642973
03. Hoekstra MJ, Kreis RW, du Pont JS. History of the Euro Skin Bank: the innovation of preservation technologies. Burns. 1994;20 Suppl 1:S43-7. PMID 8198743
04. van Baare J, Buitenwerf J, Hoekstra MJ, et al. Virucidal effect of glycerol as used in donor skin preservation. Burns. 1994;20 Suppl 1:S77-80. PMID 8198750
05. Marshall L, Ghosh MM, Boyce SG, et al. Effect of glycerol on intracellular virus survival: implications for the clinical use of glycerol-preserved cadaver skin. Burns. 1995 Aug;21(5):356-61. PMID 7546258
06. Tomford WW. Bone allografts: past, present and future. Cell and tissue banking. 2000;1(2):105-9. PMID 15256954
07. Giovani AM, Croci AT, Oliveira CR, et al. Comparative study of cryopreserved bone tissue and tissue preserved in a 98% glycerol solution. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2006 Dec;61(6):565-70. PMID 17187094
08. Freedman J. Scleral patch grafts with Molteno setons. Ophthalmic Surg. 1987 Jul;18(7):532-4. PMID 3627691
09. Sumida S. Transfusion and transplantation of cryopreserved cells and tissues. Cell and tissue banking. 2006;7(4):265-305. PMID 16941224
10. Pegg DE. The preservation of tissues for transplantation. Cell and tissue banking. 2006;7(4):349-58. PMID 16957871
11. King JH, Jr. Keratoplasty; experimental studies with corneas preserved by dehydration. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1956;54:567-609. PMID 13433790
12. King JH, Jr. The use of preserved ocular tissues for transplantation. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1958;56:203-11; discussion 11-6. PMID 13647593
13. King JH, Jr., Townsend WM. The prolonged storage of donor corneas by glycerine dehydration. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1984;82:106-10. PMID 6398932
14. King JH, Jr., Mc TJ, Meryman HT. Preservation of corneas for lamellar keratoplasty: a simple method of chemical glycerine-dehydration. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1961;59:194-201. PMID 14456106

Validated Alcohol Preservation
SCLERA
//stores sclera in ethyl alcohol in whole or halves for up to 1 year.

Every tissue undergoes rigorous screening tests to ensure patient safety. Donor Eligibility meets the strict donor screening and laboratory testing specifications of the source eye bank and the requirements of the Eye Bank Association (EBAA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Tissues are screened to certify that they are free of stromal infiltrates, radial keratotomy scarring, foreign bodies, and any penetrating injuries that would compromise biomechanical stability.

Bio-safety surveillance ongoing at AEB includes environmental monitoring to ensure minimal micro-organism exposure,  as well as continuing safety education of certified technical staff.

All tissues are negative on the following tests, by regulations:

  • HBsAg-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
  • HBcAB Total (IgG and IgM)-Hepatitis B Core Total Antibody
  • HIV-1/2—HIV 1 & 2 Antibody
  • HIV-1 NAT-HIV-1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Test
  • HCV NAT- Hepatitis C Nucleic Acid Amplification Test
  • HCV Ab-Hepatitis C Antibody
  • RPR-Rapid Plasma Reagin

Some tissues undergo these additional tests:

  • HBV NAT-Hepatitis B Nucleic Acid Amplification Test
  • FTA-Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Confirmatory Test for Syphilis
  • TPHA-Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay-Confirmatory Test for Syphilis
  • HTLV I/II-Human T-Lymphotropic Virus
  • CMV-Cytomegalovirus
  • EBV IgG and EBV IgM-Epstein-Barr Virus Test
  • Toxoplasma IgG Ab-Toxoplasmosis Test